Kennel Design with welfare considerations
Effective kennel design can improve dogs’ physical and mental health. When building a new kennel or modifying an old one, factors to consider include:
- the breed(s) and size of the dogs
- the materials used for flooring type, the impact on noise level, and ease of cleaning
- safety of materials and design
- the sizes and locations of play yards, whelping, nursery, and quarantine areas
- the complexity of the environment from platforms, stairs, surfaces, and resting areas
Design kennels with separate quarantine, exam, and medical treatment areas. Locate whelping and nursery areas away from high traffic areas. Kennel design should make cleaning, observation, and interaction with the dogs easy for caretakers.
Both the size and complexity of living spaces are important for dog welfare. More space allows for more complexity.
Complex environments are good for dogs. Complex living and play areas increase activity that is good for their health. Elements that allow dogs to perform natural behaviors can decrease undesirable behaviors. Larger kennels allow for social housing that is good for social dogs!
Meet dogs’ behavioral and physical needs. Design kennels to reduce sound. Excess noise can cause physical and psychological stress in dogs.
Coppola, C.L., Enns, R. M. & Grandin, T. (2006). Noise in the animal shelter environment: Building design and the effects of daily noise exposure. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci., 9, 1-7.
kennel design with welfare considerations Library
Bare Bones – If you only have a few minutes for the basics
At-A-Glance: Kennel Design with Behavior and Welfare Considerations - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Incorporating Canine Behavior and Welfare Into Kennel Design - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Quick Tips for Success: Kennel Design with Behavior and Welfare Considerations - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Environmental Sources of Stress for Kenneled Dogs: Space and Flooring – CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Setting Up a Welfare-Friendly Whelping Area - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
SNACKS – If you want to learn more
Does Long-term Tethering of Dogs Negatively Impact Their Well-being? - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Promoting the Welfare of Kenneled Dogs: Space Allocations and Exercise - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Promoting the Welfare of Kenneled Dogs: Environmental Considerations - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Effects of Flooring on Animal Health and Well-Being: Implications for Kenneled Dogs - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Setting Puppies and Dogs Up For Success: Designing Kennels With Behavior and Welfare Considerations In Mind - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Enterprise Budgeting and Partial Budgeting for Dog Breeders - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Color Me Fear Free
22 Easy DIY Dog Playground Ideas For Small Backyard
Reducing Stress by Design
Gaps in Scientific Research Related to Canine-Breeding Considerations
Designing For How Animals Hear
Preparing For Your Litter Whelping Box – Hints and Considerations
Kibble – If you want to take a deep dive into the science
Does Flooring Substrate Impact Kennel and Dog Cleanliness in Commercial Breeding Facilities? - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Meeting the Behavioral Needs of Kenneled Dogs - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
The Effects of Kennel Size and Exercise on the Behaviour and Stress Physiology of Individually-Housed Greyhounds
Correlates of Pen Size and Housing Conditions on the Behaviour of Kennelled Dogs
Environmentally Enriched Dog Housing
Identifying Environmental and Management Factors That May Be Associated With the Quality of Life of Kennelled Dogs (Canis familiaris)
Physiological, Physical and Behavioural Changes in Dogs (Canis familiaris) When Kennelled: Testing the Validity of Stress Parameters
A Review of Environmental Enrichment for Kennelled Dogs, Canis familiaris
Additional Resources to Support Dogs in Other Environments
SHELTER & RESCUE
Dogs living in shelter or rescue kennels face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers, including those caring for dogs in home-based foster systems or rescue networks, are provided to support efforts to improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Dogs living in homes as family pets face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers, support the human-animal bond, keep pets in their homes, and improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Research & Teaching
Dogs living in research or teaching kennels face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers are provided to support efforts to improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Applications for Research & Teaching
An Epidemiological Study of Interdigital Cysts in a Research Beagle Colony
Kovacs, M.S., McKiernan, S., Potter, D.M., Chilappagari, S. (2005). An epidemiological study of interdigital cysts in a research beagle colony. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 44, 17-21.
Influence of Housing Conditions on Beagle Behaviour
Hetts, S., Clark, J.D., Calpin, J.P., Arnold, C.E., and Mateo, J.M. (1992). Influence of housing conditions on beagle behaviour.
The Effect of Cage Size on Play and Aggression Between Dogs in Purpose-Bred Beagles
Bebak, J. and Beck, A. The effect of cage size on play and aggression between dogs in purpose-bred beagles. Environment Kennel Design Space
A Comparison of Social and Environmental Enrichment Methods for Laboratory Housed Dogs
This study compares the effects of social and physical enrichment on the behaviour and physiological responses of group and pair-housed beagles. Some 432 h of observation were collected from 48 beagles assigned equally to four groups: (1) a control group, (2) a group given increased opportunities for social contact with conspecifics, (3) a group given 30 s day−1 of intensive handling, and (4) a group provided with three different toys/chews permanently suspended in the pen: Rawhide, Gumabone chew and a piece of plastic tubing.
Chronic Stress in Dogs Subjected to Social and Spatial Restriction. II. Hormonal and Immunological Responses
Two groups of beagles, accustomed to spacious group housing, were subjected to social and spatial restriction and studied for manifestations of chronic stress with a time interval of 7 weeks between the groups.
Outdoor Housing of Laboratory Dogs: Effects on Activity, Behaviour and Physiology
Spangenberg, E.M.F., Björklund, L., and Dahlborn, K. Outdoor housing of laboratory dogs: Effects on activity, behaviour and physiology. Environment, kennel design, welfare
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition.
National Research Council, 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition. Environment, kennel design, welfare, research, laboratory
Applications for Pet Families
10 Dog-Friendly Landscaping Ideas for Your Backyard
Ardoin, J. (2022). 10 dog-friendly landscaping ideas for your backyard environment welfare play yards
Love Wrangler's New Plaza Play Space? 'Property Brothers' Share How to Create Your Own
TodayShow. (2015, March 18). See Wrangler's plaza play space - and learn how to create your own. TODAY.com. Environment play yards
How to Build a Dog Playground
Lauren, A. (n.d.). How to build a dog playground. The Home Depot. Retrieved June 23, 2022, from https://www.homedepot.com/c/ap/how-to-build-a-dog-playground environment enrichment
Innovations in Whelping Boxes
Mason, S. (2017, October 25). Innovations in whelping boxes. American Kennel Club. Retrieved December 14, 2022, from https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/dog-breeding/innovations-in-whelping-boxes/
Applications for Shelter & Rescue
Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels
Wagner, D., Newbury, S., Kass, P., Hurley, K., 2014. Elimination Behavior of Shelter Dogs Housed in Double Compartment Kennels. Environment Kennel Design Space
Effects of Space Allowance on the Behaviour of Long-Term Housed Shelter Dogs
Normando, S., Contiero, B., Marchesini, G., and Ricci, R. Effects of space allowance on the behaviour of long-term housed shelter dogs. Environment Kennel Design Space
Fear Free Shelters: Dog Housing Basics
Fear free shelters: Dog housing basics. Fear Free Pets. Environment kennel design welfare
New Shelter Model Seeks to Reduce Stress in Shelter Dogs
Reeder, J. (2021, March 23). New Shelter model seeks to reduce stress in Shelter Dogs. Fear Free Happy Homes. Retrieved December 14, 2022, from https://www.fearfreehappyhomes.com/new-shelter-model-seeks-to-reduce-stress-in-shelter-dogs/
Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Dogs Entering Re-Homing Kennels
Hiby, E.F., Rooney, N.J., and Bradshaw, J.W.S. (2006). Behavioural and physiological responses of dogs entering re-homing kennels. Environment kennel design welfare
Psychological Stress, Its Reduction, and Long-Term Consequences: What Studies With Laboratory Animals Might Teach Us About Life in the Dog Shelter
Hennessy, M. B., Willen, R. M., & Schiml, P. A. Psychological stress, its reduction, and long-term consequences: What studies with laboratory animals might teach us about life in the dog shelter. Environment welfare
Pet Dish TV - A New Way of Housing Shelter Dogs
AnimalHumaneSociety. (2018, July 6). Pet dish TV - a new way of Housing Shelter Dogs. YouTube. Retrieved December 14, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CW-nC-ouzu4
Cross Sectional Study Comparing Behavioural, Cognitive and Physiological Indicators of Welfare Between Short and Long Term Kennelled Domestic Dogs
Titulaer, M., Blackwell, E. J., Mendl, M., & Casey, R. A. (2013). Cross sectional study comparing behavioural, cognitive and physiological indicators of welfare between short and long term kennelled domestic dogs. Kennel Design Environment welfare
A Longitudinal Evaluation of Urinary Cortisol in Kenneled Dogs, Canis familiaris
Stephen, J. and Ledger, R. A longitudinal evaluation of urinary cortisol in kenneled dogs, canis familiaris. environment kennel design welfare
Minimum Mental Health Requirements for Shelters
Gorman, K. (2004). Minimum Mental Health Requirements for Shelters. Open paw - building lifelong positive relationships with pets. Retrieved March 6, 2022, from http://www.openpaw.org/about/minimum_health.html