Dogs are social and need positive interactions with their own kind. Over time, they have adapted and expanded their social circles to include humans. Dogs seek out contact with humans and other dogs, and show distress when isolated.
Without social interactions, learning and normal social development are negatively affected. When dogs have positive social interactions, they show fewer stress- and fear-related behaviors. The benefits of social contact for dogs are long-lasting.
Play with other dogs does not replace the need for quality time with human caretakers. To have positive effects, all social interactions should be fun for the dog.
Socialization with both humans and other dogs is critical for puppies. Adult dogs who were not socialized enough as puppies can be fearful or aggressive.
Howell, T.J., King, T. & Bennett, P.C. Puppy parties and beyond: the role of early age socialization practices on adult dog behavior. (2015). Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports, 6, 143-153.
Dogs are a social species and positive dog to dog interactions promote good welfare.
Dogs need positive social interactions with their caretakers as well as other dogs.
Social Interactions Library
Bare Bones – If you only have a few minutes for the basics
At-A-Glance: Social Interactions: Applications - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
At-A-Glance: Social Interactions: Dogs and Other Dogs - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
At-A-Glance: Social Interactions: Dogs and People - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
At-A-Glance: Social Interactions: Handling - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
At-A-Glance: Social Interactions: Skills - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Quick Tips for Success: Puppy Body Handling - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Puppy Body Handling Checklist - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Adult Dog Body Handling Checklist - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Quick Tips for Success: Adult Dog Body Handling - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
SNACKS – If you want to learn more
The Role of Caretaker Interactions in Environmental Enrichment for Kenneled Dogs - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Ten Tips to Integrate Dog Training Into Everyday Life
Canine Communication - Interpreting Dog Language
All About Dog Training: The Best Way To Train Your Dog
Practice Makes Perfect
How To Read Dog Body Language
Low Stress Handling, Restraint and Behavior Modification of Dogs & Cats: Techniques for Developing Patients Who Love Their Visits
Social and Communication Behaviour of Companion Dogs
How to Safely Get Close to a Nervous Dog
How Do You Pick-Up a Small Dog, Correctly?
Dominance Position Statement
Humane Dog Training Position Statement
The Best Way to Approach a Dog
Dogs Do Not Like Hugs
Kibble – If you want to take a deep dive into the Science
Meeting the Behavioral Needs of Kenneled Dogs - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Human Interaction and Cortisol: Can Human Contact Reduce Stress for Shelter Dogs?
Influence of Male and Female Petters on Plasma Cortisol and Behaviour: Can Human Interaction Reduce the Stress of Dogs in a Public Animal Shelter?
Heart Rate Variability and Saliva Cortisol Assessment in Shelter Dog: Human-Animal Interaction Effects
Training Dogs With the Help of the Shock Collar: Short and Long Term Behavioural Effects
Risk-Factors Associated With Veterinary-Related Fear and Aggression in Owned Domestic Dogs
Effect of a Standardized Four-Week Desensitization and Counter-Conditioning Training Program on Pre-Existing Veterinary Fear in Companion Dogs
A Review on Mitigating Fear and Aggression in Dogs and Cats in a Veterinary Setting
Stress In Client-Owned Dogs Related To Clinical Exam Location: A Randomised Crossover Trial
Correlates of Pen Size and Housing Conditions on the Behaviour of Kennelled Dogs
Minimizing Stress for Patients in the Veterinary Hospital: Why It Is Important and What Can Be Done About It
Social Buffering of the Stress Response: Diversity, Mechanisms, and Functions
Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Grieve Over the Loss of a Conspecifc
The 2020 Five Domains Model: Including Human-Animal Interactions in Assessments of Animal Welfare
Effects of Human–Dog Familiarity on Dogs’ Behavioural Responses to Petting
Survey of the Use and Outcome of Confrontational and Non-Confrontational Training Methods in Client-Owned Dogs Showing Undesired Behaviors
Shut Up and Pet Me! Domestic Dogs (Canis Lupus familiaris) Prefer Petting to Vocal Praise in Concurrent and Single-Alternative Choice Procedures
The Effects of Using Aversive Training Methods in Dogs – A Review
Does Training Method Matter? Evidence for the Negative Impact of Aversive-Based Methods on Companion Dog Welfare
Give the Dog a Big Bone: Magnitude But Not Delivery Method of Food Impacts Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy in Dogs
An Investigation Into the Impact of Pre-Adolescent Training on Canine Behavior
Why Do Dogs Play? Function and Welfare Implications of Play in the Domestic Dog
Additional Resources to Support Dogs in Other Environments
SHELTER & RESCUE
Dogs living in shelter or rescue kennels face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers, including those caring for dogs in home-based foster systems or rescue networks, are provided to support efforts to improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Dogs living in homes as family pets face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers, support the human-animal bond, keep pets in their homes, and improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Research & Teaching
Dogs living in research or teaching kennels face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers are provided to support efforts to improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Applications for Research & Teaching
Influence of Housing Conditions on Beagle Behaviour
Hetts, S., Clark, J.D., Calpin, J.P., Arnold, C.E., and Mateo, J.M. (1992). Influence of housing conditions on beagle behaviour.
Chronic Stress in Dogs Subjected to Social and Spatial Restriction. II. Hormonal and Immunological Responses
Two groups of beagles, accustomed to spacious group housing, were subjected to social and spatial restriction and studied for manifestations of chronic stress with a time interval of 7 weeks between the groups.
Teaching Chin Rest to Dogs
Yin, S. (2021, December 14). Teaching chin rest to dogs. low stress handling
How Do You Move a Dog From Standing to Lateral?
Yin, S. (2014). How do you move a dog from standing to lateral? Dr. Sophia Yin. Retrieved April 5, 2022, from https://drsophiayin.com/videos/entry/how-do-you-move-a-dog-from-standing-to-lateral/
The Relationship Between Number of Training Sessions Per Week and Learning in Dogs
Meyer, I. and Ladewig, J. (2008). The relationship between number of training sessions per week and learning in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 111, 311-320.