Environmental Management & Monitoring
Comfort is an important component of a dog’s well-being. Enclosures should meet the needs of a dog’s breed, age, health, and reproductive status.
Design housing that:
- keeps dogs clean and dry
- protects dogs from the elements
- prevents injury or disease from outside animals
- is safe and clean
Use flooring that:
- supports foot and leg health
- prepares dogs to use surfaces they will experience in future homes
- is easy to maintain and sanitize
When designing kennels, consider:
- space needs for exercise and healthy behaviors
- temperature and humidity
Lighting and noise can be a source of stress for animals.
Lighting impacts behavior, health, reproduction, and growth.
- the type of lighting
- the intensity
- maintaining light/dark cycles
Construct kennels to reduce noise levels. Humane behavioral strategies can reduce barking caused by over-arousal, anxiety, and fear.
Environmental design and kennel management practices impact dog well-being. Beds, walks, training, and a quiet environment can improve their quality of life.
Kiddie, J. & Collins, L. (2015). Identifying environmental and management factors that may be associated with the quality of life in kenneled dogs (Canis familiaris). Appl. Anim. Beh. Sci., 167, 43-55.
Environmental Management & Monitoring Library
Bare Bones – If you only have a few minutes for the basics
Environmental Sources of Stress for Kenneled Dogs: Space and Flooring – CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Environmental Sources of Stress for Kenneled Dogs: Temperature and Ventilation – CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Environmental Sources of Stress for Kenneled Dogs: Noise and Lighting - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
SNACKS – If you want to learn more
Auditory Stress: Implications for Kenneled Dog Welfare - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Temperature Requirements for Dogs - Are They Tailored to Promote Dog Welfare? - CRONEY RESEARCH GROUP
Animal Care Tech Note - Temperature and Humidity in Dog Kennels
How Much Ammonia is Too Much, Part II
Spring Cleaning Tips for Kennels
Using Bleach Properly in Animal Shelters
Shelter Disinfectant Quick Reference
Kibble – If you want to take a deep dive into the science
Influence of Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) on Dogs Housed in a Long-Term Kennelling Facility
Influence of Dog- Appeasing Pheromone on Canine Maternal Behaviour During the Peripartum and Neonatal Periods
Influence of ADAPTIL® During the Weaning Period: A Double-Blinded Randomised Clinical Trial
Impact of Classical Counterconditioning (Quiet Kennel Exercise) on Barking in Kenneled Dogs—A Pilot Study
Noise in Dog Kennelling: Is Barking a Welfare Problem for Dogs?
Musical Dogs: A Review of the Influence of Auditory Enrichment on Canine Health and Behavior
The Effect of Different Genres of Music on the Stress Levels of Kennelled Dogs
Effect of Kennel Door Design on Vocalization in Dogs
Behavioral Effects of Auditory Stimulation on Kenneled Dogs
Influence of Changes in Luminous Emittance Before Bedtime on Sleep in Companion Dogs
Identifying Environmental and Management Factors That May Be Associated With the Quality of Life of Kennelled Dogs (Canis familiaris)
Additional Resources to Support Dogs in Other Environments
SHELTER & RESCUE
Dogs living in shelter or rescue kennels face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers, including those caring for dogs in home-based foster systems or rescue networks, are provided to support efforts to improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Dogs living in homes as family pets face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers, support the human-animal bond, keep pets in their homes, and improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Research & Teaching
Dogs living in research or teaching kennels face challenges specific to their living environments. Practical applications for their management and care may also differ. Additional resources for their caretakers are provided to support efforts to improve, maintain, and protect their welfare.
Applications for Research & Teaching
Effect of Auditory Stimulation During Early Development in Puppy Testing of Future Police Working Dogs
lves, J.C.; Santos, A.; Lopes, B.; Jorge, P. Effect of auditory stimulation during early development in puppy testing of future police working dogs. Top. Companion Anim. Med. 2018, 33, 100–104.
Effect of Environmental Noise and Music on Dexmedetomidine-Induced Sedation in Dogs
Albright, J.D.; Seddighi, R.M.; Ng, Z.; Sun, X.; Rezac, D.J. Effect of environmental noise and music on dexmedetomidine-induced sedation in dogs. PeerJ 2017, 5, e3659.
The Potential Beneficial Effect of Classical Music on Heart Rate Variability in Dogs Used in Veterinary Training
Koster, L.S.; Sithole, F.; Gilbert, G.E.; Artemiou, E. The potential beneficial effect of classical music on heart rate variability in dogs used in veterinary training. J. Vet. Behav. 2019, 30, 103–109.
The Use of the DAP® Collar to Reduce Stress During Training of Police Dogs (Canis familiaris): A Preliminary Study
Schroll, S., Dehasse, J., Palme, R., Sommerfeld-Stur, I., & Lowenstein, G. (2005). The use of DAP collar to reduce stress during training of Police Dogs. VET-Magazin.com. Retrieved March 13, 2022, from https://vet-magazin.com/wissenschaft/tier-verhaltensmedizin-verhaltensforschung/verhaltensforschung/DAP-collar.html
Applications for Pet Families
Applications for Shelter & Rescue
Addressing Stress in Dogs in Shelters Through a Novel Visual and Auditory Enrichment Device
Epstein, J., Dowling-Guyer, S., McCobb, E., Glotzer, C., and Dodman, N.H. . Addressing stress in dogs in shelters through a novel visual and auditory enrichment device. Enrichment
Efficacy of Dog Appeasing Pheromone in Reducing Stress and Fear Related Behaviour in Shelter Dogs
Tod, E., Brander, D., Waran, N., Efficacy of dog appeasing pheromone in reducing stress and fear related behaviour in shelter dogs. environment management temp humidity ventilation
The Effects of Dog-Appeasing Pheromone Spray Upon Canine Vocalizations and Stress-Related Behaviors in a Rescue Shelter.
Hermiston, C., Montrose, V. T., & Taylor, S. The effects of dog-appeasing pheromone spray upon canine vocalizations and stress-related behaviors in a rescue shelter. Temperature Humidity Ventilation Environment management
Effects of Music Pitch and Tempo on the Behaviour of Kennelled Dogs
Amaya, V., Descovich, K., Paterson, M. B.A., & Phillips, C.J.C. ; Effects of music pitch and tempo on the behaviour of kennelled dogs; enrichment;welfare
Dog Laughter: Recorded Playback Reduces Stress Related Aggression in Shelter Dogs
Simonet, P., Versteeg, D., and Storie, D. Dog Laughter: recorded playback reduces stress related aggression in shelter dogs, Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, Wildlife Conservation Society Environmental Management Noise
Improving In-Kennel Presentation of Shelter Dogs Through Response-Dependent and Response-Independent Treat Delivery
Protopopova, A. and Wynne, C.D.L. Improving in-kennel presentation of shelter dogs through response-dependent and response-independent treat delivery. Environmental Management Noise
Effects of Group and Individual Housing on the Behavior of Kennelled Dogs in Animal Shelters
Mertens, P.A. and Unshelm, J. Effects of group and individual housing on the behavior of kennelled dogs in animal shelters. Environment Management Noise
Environmental Factors That Affect Kenneled Shelter Dogs in Connecticut
Burban, Laura. Environmental Factors That Affect Kenneled Shelter Dogs in Connecticut Environment noise, humidity, temperature, lighting
Short Term Consequences of Preventing Visitor Access to Kennels on Noise and the Behaviour and Physiology of Dogs Housed in a Rescue Shelter
Hewison, L.F., Wright, H.F., Zulch, H.E., and Ellis, S.L.H. Short term consequences of preventing visitor access to kennels on noise and the behaviour and physiology of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Environment Noise Management
The Effects of Audiobooks on the Behaviour of Dogs at a Rehoming Kennels
Brayley, C. and Montrose, V.T. The effects of audiobooks on the behaviour of dogs at a rehoming kennels.
‘Four Seasons’ In an Animal Rescue Centre; Classical Music Reduces Environmental Stress in Kennelled Dogs
Bowman, A.; Dowell, F.J.; Evans, N.P.; Scottish, S. Four Seasons in an animal rescue centre; classical music reduces environmental stress in kennelled dogs. environment noise management welfare
The Sleep of Shelter Dogs Was Not Disrupted by Overnight Light Rather Than Darkness in a Crossover Trial
Houpt, K., Erb, H., & Coria-Avila, G. (2019). The Sleep of Shelter Dogs Was Not Disrupted by Overnight Light Rather than Darkness in a Crossover Trial. Animals, 9(10), 794. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9100794
Shedding a Light on Animal Shelters: The Use of Light and Its Effect on the Adoption Process
Heemstra., & E.M. (2013). Shedding a light on animal shelters: The use of light and its effect on the adoption process. - University of Twente Student Theses.
The Influence of Olfactory Stimulation on the Behaviour of Dogs Housed in a Rescue Shelter
This study explored the influence of five types of olfactory stimulation (control, lavender, chamomile, rosemary and peppermint) on the behaviour of 55 dogs housed in a rescue shelter. The dogs were exposed to each type of olfactory stimulation, through the diffusion of essential oils, for 4 h a day for 5 days, with an intervening period of 2 days between conditions. The dogs’ behaviour was recorded on days 1, 3 and 5, during each condition of olfactory stimulation. Certain aspects of the dogs’ behaviour were influenced by the odours.
Noise in the Animal Shelter Environment: Building Design and the Effects of Daily Noise Exposure
Coppola, C.L., Enns, R.M., and Grandin, T. Noise in the animal shelter environment: Building design and the effects of daily noise exposure. Environment noise kennel design welfare