The 4F’s of Fear- Fear Responses

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A large-scale Finnish study on dogs by the University of Helenski showed that 72.5% of all dogs showed at least one form of canine anxiety. The highest form of canine anxiety was noise sensitivity such as fear of fireworks or thunder and the second highest form of canine anxiety was fear towards dogs, strangers and novel objects. This study shows how canine fear and anxiety are serious welfare issues.

Leslie, R. (2022, July 25). The 4f’s of fear- fear responses. Welfare For Animals. Retrieved January 2, 2023, from


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Topic(s): Behavior, Canine Body Language, Pet Families